Centre for Communication Governance at NLU delhi
Primary Sources: International and Comparative

World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), 2005

The Summit took place in two phases, the Geneva Phase and the Tunis Phase. The objective of the first phase was to develop and foster a clear statement of political will and take concrete steps to establish the foundations for an Information Society for all, reflecting all the different interests at stake. The objective of the second phase was to put Geneva's Plan of Action into motion as well as to find solutions and reach agreements in the fields of Internet governance, financing mechanisms, and follow-up and implementation of the Geneva and Tunis documents.

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UN General Assembly Resolution 56/183 (21 December, 2001)

The full text of the Resolution is open access. 

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Geneva Declaration of Principles and Geneva Plan of Action

The Declaration of Principles and Plan of Action can be accessed from the ITU website. 

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Tunis Commitment and Tunis Agenda for the Information Society (2005)

The Commitment and Agenda can be accessed from the ITU website. 

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Declaration on Fundamental Principles concerning the Contribution of the Mass Media to Strengthening Peace and International Understanding, to the Promotion of Human Rights and to Countering Racialism, Apartheid and Incitement to War, UNESCO, 28 November

The Declaration can be accessed from the UNESCO website. 

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UNESCO Division of Freedom of Expression and Media Development (FEM)

“The main tasks include sensitizing governments, public institutions and civil society on freedom of expression and freedom of the press, including through the celebration of World Press Freedom Day. Notably, the Division assists UNESCO’s Member States in developing standards and legal instruments for press freedom and freedom of information in accordance with internationally recognized standards, and monitors the state of the safety of journalists, including impunity as regards violence against journalists.

The Division is also responsible for mobilizing international support for the International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC) and, in this context, for assisting UNESCO’s Member States in the development of free, independent and pluralistic media, in line with the Media Development Indicators (MDI).

It is responsible for setting standards for journalism education and for supporting the role of media in fostering inclusive dialogue, especially in conflict-sensitive situations. Moreover, the Division works in fostering media pluralism, particularly by promoting community media and fostering media and information literacy.”

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International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC)

“The IPDC is the only multilateral forum in the UN system designed to mobilize the international community to discuss and promote media development in developing countries. The Programme not only provides support for media projects but also seeks an accord to secure a healthy environment for the growth of free and pluralistic media in developing countries.”

United Nations Sub-commission on Freedom of Information and the Press

The Sub-Commission was adopted by the General Assembly in 1953.

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United Nations Conference on Freedom of Information

The Conference was adopted by the Economic and Social Council in 1948. 

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International Press Institute

IPI is a global network of editors, media executives and leading journalists. Their mission is to defend media freedom and the free flow of news wherever they are threatened.

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